New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations


New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations
"The essential guide to employment"

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New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations
Volume 44  Number 3

In the latest New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations the following topics are covered. If you wish to read the full articles or download the entire NZJER issue you need to subscribe to the NZJER.

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From Volune 45(1) issues of the journal will be available open access via Tuwhera 

Editors' Note: Open Access to the New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (NZJER)

We are pleased to announce that the New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (NZJER) will be open access through AUT Library’s Tuwhera Open Journal Publishing website.
While we have not taken the decision lightly, we are committed to disseminating quality New Zealand-relevant research and, by making the Journal open access, we hope that we advance this aim. Access to the Journal is via the link: and forthcoming articles will be available as from volume 45, issue 1.
We welcome all relevant, quality manuscripts, and submissions can be made via the website. Instructions to the authors can also be found on the website. Previous issues can still be accessed via We would also like to point out that the papers published in this issue, 44(3), are pre-COVID-19 and, as such, reflect the time before the pandemic. 
Thank you,

Erling Rasmussen, Felicity Lamm, Bernard Walker, and Julienne Molineaux
Editors, New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations

Open Access Publishing: The historical and current developments surrounding changes at the New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations



The article highlights the long process that open access publishing has taken both in terms of our decision to provide open access to the New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations but also in the general sphere of open access publishing. The article commences with a brief overview of the different debates and forms of open access journals. We also chronicle the various stages of our decision to move from the traditional, user-pays model to open access publishing. While technological developments have facilitated more open access publishing, there are also a number of key barriers, especially the universities’ use of rankings of journals as performance management proxies, which makes it difficult to move from traditional to open access publishing.  It is suggested, however, that open access requirements from major funders could be a game changer which will support better public access to research findings and adjust the balance between traditional and open access publishing.

* Professor of Work and Employment, Department of Management, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand. Email contact:
** Associate Professor, Department of Management, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
*** School of Social Sciences, AUT, Auckland, New Zealand

Organisational-Based Self-Esteem, Meaningful Work, and Creativity Behaviours: A Moderated Mediation Model with Supervisor Support


Creativity behaviours can be fundamental to ongoing organisational success, but less is known around effects from combination of factors. We test organisational-based self-esteem (OBSE) on creativity behaviours and meaningful work as a mediator and perceived supervisor support as a moderator. Under conservation of resource theory, we expect the combined influence of all these factors will promote creativity behaviours, whereas, under behavioural plasticity theory, we expect the external factor (perceived supervisor support) to be especially advantageous only to employees with low OBSE only. We then test a moderated mediation model to determine a potential boundary condition using a sample of 505 New Zealand employees. We find that OBSE influences creativity behaviours and meaningful work, and that meaningful work is also related to creativity behaviours and fully mediates the influence of OBSE. Further, perceived supervisor support interacts significantly with OBSE towards meaningful work and creativity behaviours, indicating greater outcomes when support and OBSE are high. We also find a significant moderated mediated effect, highlighting the boundary condition whereby the indirect effect of OBSE on creativity behaviours (through meaningful work) increases as support strengthens. Our findings challenge OBSE related theories around the influence of external factor (perceived supervisor support) on OBSE, and we discuss our findings in light of these effects.

* Azka Ghafoor, Management Department, AUT
** Prof Jarrod Haar, Management Department, AUT, 

Commentary: Labour market change and employee protection in New Zealand in light of the ‘future of work’ debate



Much has been written internationally about the likely labour market impacts of the so-called ‘future of work’ or the ‘fourth industrial revolution’ (Schwab, 2016). In New Zealand, the ‘future of work’ has also attracted considerable academic, political and public commentary. This commentary seeks to set some of the issues around technological change and employee protections in context, by drawing on evidence from the recent past, current New Zealand data on temporary and casualised employment and on a few examples from the international literature. We argue that two separate sets of issues are often conflated in the New Zealand discussions. Both have important employment protection implications, but they differ significantly in the policy responses needed. While it is too soon to be sure, it is also likely that they differ in scale. One set of issues surrounds the way people work and, in particular, questions around casualisation, precarious employment, and the rise of the ‘gig economy’. The other set of issues concerns job losses, technological redundancy and structural labour market change. Our analysis of the broad data presented in the commentary suggests that casualised employment has not yet increased significantly, although we do not rule out the possibility that it will do so in the future. Reviewing the outcomes of the large scale, structural labour market change during the 1980s and 1990s, we argue that policy needs to learn from the failings of that period to minimise the long-term negative social and economic consequences in which those changes resulted.

* Senior Research Fellow, Institute for Governance and Policy Studies, School of Government, Victoria University of Wellington
** Professor of Work and Employment, Department of Management, Auckland University of Technology

Living Wage Employer Status and Job Attitudes and Behaviours



New Zealand organisations have begun to respond positively to the concept of a Living Wage (LW), but the effects on job attitudes and behaviours is largely unknown. Social exchange theory would suggest employees should reciprocate with stronger attitudes and behaviours, and this is tested on a sample of 190 New Zealand employees with 57 per cent working for a LW employer. The findings indicate that employees in LW organisations are positively associated with organisational trust, which fully mediates effects towards turnover intentions and Organisational Citizenship Behaviours (OCBs), and partially mediates effects towards career satisfaction. The findings suggest that providing a LW can benefit organisations, through enhancing their employees’ attitudes and behaviours.

* Prof Jarrod Haar, Management Department, AUT, 

Awards and collective bargaining in Australia: what do they do, and are they relevant to New Zealand?



This paper explains, in some depth, how the system of awards, collective agreements and individual contracts works in Australia.  It also describes how many people are covered by these arrangements, how much they are paid and how awards and agreements interact. It discusses the effects of the award system, which are probably greater on equity (compressing wage relativities, providing some opportunities for action on gender pay equity) than on productivity (though skill-based wage structures may have some effect). The issues raised by it are relevant to debates in New Zealand about fair pay agreements, wage levels and pay equity.

* Professor of Employment Relations, Griffith University Business School, Queensland Australia

Managers’ Perceptions of Artificial Intelligence and Automation: Insights into the Future of Work



The impact of Artificial Intelligence and Automation (AIA) on the future of work has been the subject of significant amounts of discussion from scholars, business people, governments, and scientists. The purpose of this research was to explore managers’ perceptions of AIA, and how they think it will impact the future of employment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 high-level managers, six from the private sector and five from the public sector, all of whom are responsible for the recruitment and management of staff. All 11 managers predicted AIA would cause considerable disruption across the employment relations landscape and that the number of workers performing certain tasks would decrease through replacement with AIA. One of the key concerns raised by the managers was the level of uncertainty around the type of new jobs that may emerge as a result of AIA. The participants recognised employees may build up greater job responsibility as a result of AIA, including overseeing the automation of processes. The managers further discussed the importance of valuing employees through developing reskilling initiatives in expectation of AIA impact. This report adds a much needed insight into AIA from the perspective of managers as this view is very limited to date.

* PhD Candidate, School of Management, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
** Senior Lecturer, School of Management, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand 
*** Associate Professor School of Management, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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